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Having miraculously sprung back into life, Barabas parleys with the Turks and articulates with disarming ease a scheme to penetrate an urban underworld: Barabas Fear not, my lord, for here against the sluice, The rock is hollow, and of purpose digged, To make a passage for the running streams And common channels of the city. However, this text is also simultaneously probing the proverbial early modern projection of the Jew as culturally uncertain. For the Turkish elite, however, he reserves: a dainty gallery, The floor whereof, this cable being cut, Doth fall asunder, so that it doth sink Into a deep pit past recovery.

From a wider perspective, it becomes evident that Barabas understands fully the values of his fellow creatures who have set foot on the island; yet ultimately he fails to be as supple in his role-playing as his detractors. As has been appreciated above, everybody on stage is an alien of one kind or another. Bernardine Barabas Thou hast committed — Fornication? But that was in another country: And besides, the wench is dead.

Eliot as he composed Portrait of a Lady: both he and Marlowe were stimulated by the evocation of a culture which prefers to dispense with the inconveniences of conscience and memory. When the potential for heroism is allowed to figure in this world, it does so in surprising ways: as, for example, when Barabas defends his rights against theft by the state, whilst his fellow Jews submit unhesitatingly: Why did you yield to their extortion? You were a multitude, and I but one, And of me only have they taken all.

In The Practice, Proceedings, and Lawes of Armes , Matthew Sutcliffe is quite clear how to respond to any display of hostility: 64 Cultural Marginality in The Jew of Malta Suppose we should yeeld vnto our enemies any thing, which in reason they can desire: yet is that no meanes for vs to obteine peace. For those that endure one iniurie, doe but giue courage vnto their enemies to offer another and oftentimes the enemie desireth somewhat to be yelden to him, that the same may be a steppe to further matters, the bitch that desired of the shepheard.

The best therefore is to resist betime. His seaborne empire exploits the discrepancy between purchase at source and sale in the Mediterranean market. Yes: see how stands the vanes? It becomes increasingly evident that these faraway places have no particular significance for Barabas. He chimes their names together in order to poeticize his own power. Indeed, as Emily Bartels underlines, Marlovian space is, in some ways, shapeless, but the lack of differentiation between its worlds functions on a less abstract level to suggest the meaninglessness not of space but of the bounds imposed upon it.

The point is not that space is meaningless, but that the differences assigned to it are empty, overdetermined, or arbitrary, at best. Given the multiple comforts of his trading lifestyle, it is unsurprising that Barabas belittles questions of political faction and warfare: he seeks to maintain peace and liberty of movement in order to further his business interests.

Lefebvre stresses: 66 Cultural Marginality in The Jew of Malta nationhood implies the existence of a market gradually built up over a historical period of varying length. It implies, in other words, a political power controlling and exploiting the resources of the market or the growth of the productive forces in order to maintain and further its rule. The time has been that but for one bare night A hundred ducats have been freely given; But now against my will I must be chaste. Moreover, both soldiers and merchants arrive in Malta driven by the same appetite: Ferneze Bashaw Welcome great Bashaw, how fares Calymath, What wind drives you thus unto Malta road?

The wind that bloweth all the world besides, Desire of gold. At the beginning of the play, messages arrive one after the other informing the hero that his merchant fleets have been sighted. As his investments come to mature, he is seen to trade in the lives and fortunes of all those around him: he consigns sailors to defective vessels, Cultural Marginality in The Jew of Malta 67 attributes no status to his followers and disdains any concept of civic allegiance.

I have seen within these twenty years when there were of these haberdashers that sell French or Milan caps, glasses, daggers, swords, girdles, and such like, not a dozen in all London. And now, from the Tower to Westminster along, every street is full of them. Malta is constantly being redrawn, remapped in the play and absorbed into the various schemes of empire-builders. From every perspective, the walled capital and, indeed, the whole island 68 Cultural Marginality in The Jew of Malta is presented as a cultural outpost, a marginalized territory which gathers together an unstable mix of diaspora and which is well within the sights of a host of imperializing regimes.

Marlowe chooses to deflate Christian achievement by reversing the outcome of the great siege of Malta. Moreover, historically, there never was any question of a Maltese tribute to the Islamic empire. Whence is thy ship that anchors in our road? Our fraught is Grecians, Turks, and Afric Moors.

Of whom we would make sale in Malta here. The Elizabethan polity was acutely aware of the political implications of overseas commercial ventures, whether they were across the oceans challenging Iberian powers or on the European mainland itself. Such activities not only served to disrupt balances of power Cultural Marginality in The Jew of Malta 69 between imperializing forces, but also they were of domestic import — challenging existing civic hierarchies.

Nobody who sets foot on this island can hope to affirm any cultural status without deploying a financial marker of some kind. This point was taken up from a historical perspective by Lewis Mumford in his landmark study of the city: he underlined that from the late Middle Ages liquid capital proved to be a chemical solvent: it cut through the cracked varnish that had long protected the medieval town and ate down to the raw wood. Thus capitalism, by its very nature,.

The facility with which the merchant, bereft of the political power at the disposal of the Christians, is able to transform the world of Malta is easily exemplified in terms of linguistic space. The actions and words of the characters in this frenzied drama are more likely to generate awe, bewilderment and disbelief, than a condemnation of villainy or faith in a vengeful God. The Jew of Malta continues to invite its audiences to attend to the diverse ways in which language may transform and indeed construct new versions of cultural engagement.

Must tuna my lute for sound, twang twang first. How sweet, my Ithamore, the flowers smell. Foh, methinks they stink like a hollyhock.

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The scent thereof was death, I poisoned it. Pardonnez-moi, be no in tune yet; so now, now all be in. From a textual perspective, Barabas is allowed to dominate the stage — approximately half the play text is devoted to him, principally his soliloquies and asides to the audience. In addition, in this vicious dramatic world, Marlowe never gives us any encouragement to exercise our powers to trust.

The constant dramatic emphasis upon trickery in the dark and menacing environment of Malta has inevitably encouraged critics, from T. This is clearly the case in both of these plays. Why, true, therefore did I place him there: The other chambers open towards the street. You loiter, master. Wherefore stay we thus? Oh, how I long to see him shake his heels! In those rare moments of leisure in Malta, Barabas and his recently recruited sidekick amuse themselves by fathering new narratives and demonic, fantasied identities for themselves in nightmarish communities: Barabas Ithamore As for myself, I walk abroad a-nights And kill sick people groaning under walls: Sometimes I go about and poison wells;.

Faith, master, In setting Christian villages on fire, Chaining of eunuchs, binding galley-slaves. Moreover, it is a 72 Cultural Marginality in The Jew of Malta familiar reflex of criticism on this play to draw analogies between Barabas and the medieval Vice figure. Here is a world in which Marlowe interrogates early modern religious prejudices and unfixes racial stereotypes: conventional expectations disintegrate as Turks, for example, attract a measure of respect rather than horror at their violent mores.

A number of critics have returned to the point that with a name such as Barabas, the protagonist would have been likened to the Antichrist. Equally importantly, in its unswerving devotion to temporal gain, Malta may become for its audience a symbolic city of damnation where, in general, any experience of loss is avenged rather than mourned. Oh no, good Barabas come to our house. Nor, it should be added, were such expulsions and racial tensions unknown as the sixteenth century drew to a close in Elizabethan London. Popular anxieties surrounding what was seen as economic exploitation by foreign merchants led to what have been called the anti-alien riots in the streets of the capital in the s.

The republic attracted much attention across Europe for its treatment of a community of Jews numbering in the region of 1, As the play unfolds, Barabas seeks to elude control of disciplinary cultural elites by concealing the locations of his wealth. However, the defensive cultural spaces he produces in quick succession are shown to be appropriated by the very enemies who are trying to manage him by reducing him to a stereotyped object of revulsion.

It cannot be stressed often enough that The Jew of Malta is a study in prejudice of many different kinds. The text repeatedly draws attention to received thinking and animosities and interrogates them through dramatic provocation. Repeatedly, critics of this play have observed that Edward Alleyn interpreted this role dressed in gabardine with a long nose and red hair. At a deeper level, we perceive that, like Machevill of the Prologue, he weighs not men. He does not need us personally and does not like us; and, in common with the Christians of Malta, we feel much the same about him.

Neither did the existence of a Jew stereotype prevent individual Elizabethans from adapting, modifying or simply rejecting the stereotype. As the denouement of the play indicates, such demonized identities and spaces are necessary in a society which is failing to distinguish between its Self and Other. They say we are a scattered nation: I cannot tell, but we have scambled up 78 Cultural Marginality in The Jew of Malta More wealth by far than those that brag of faith.

It should not be surprising, for example, given the tradition of pastoral writing by urban dwellers that, in the midst of this degenerate culture, Bellamira should endeavour to seduce Ithamore and fashion romance in terms of pastoral retreat. Thou in those groves, by Dis above, Shalt live with me and be my love. Indeed, in this reversed voyage leading to Greece rather than Colchis into the golden age of eternal spring, we are presented with a locus of seemingly inexhaustible space, uninhibited proprietorialism, and one governed by Dis instead of the Olympian ruler.

The energetic intrigue centring upon Ithamore, Bellamira and PiliaBorza is, of course, keenly contextualized by that centring on the thwarted Abigail. Subsequently, the narcissistic Barabas disarmingly transfers his attention to a more accommodating apprentice: First be thou void of these affections, Compassion, love, vain hope, and heartless fear, Be moved at nothing, see thou pity none, But to thyself smile when the Christians moan. However, as has been appreciated 80 Cultural Marginality in The Jew of Malta above, her flight from villainy to the convent is no escape at all for the same appetites are apparent there as in the streets and counting houses outside.

This lone woman, whose virtue renders her vulnerable, can find no way of formulating an identity independent of patriarchal value systems. Fearing the dangers and responsibilities of the vigorous government which Malta would require, Barabas becomes agitated: the possibility that he may become distracted from the business of private wealth creation is an overwhelming source of anxiety.

There is no reason to believe at the 82 Cultural Marginality in The Jew of Malta end of the play that Marlowe has chosen to relax the tensions of complex ironies which have been operating throughout. Man is great in that he is a bridge and not a goal: man can be loved in that he is a transition and a perishing. Most importantly, this text rapidly impresses upon us how multiple versions of human experience may be seen to dwell within one cultural locus — and indeed, how human subjects can generate a host of varied planes of meaning for themselves simultaneously.

Most importantly for the purposes of the present study, this Jacobean tragedy makes available for detailed scrutiny the social construction of place. Here, the political drive towards self-affirmation is shown to be intimately linked to the continuing narrativization of the physical reality.

Such endeavours to endow the environment with psychological and cultural significance engage closely with Edward W. Such a conclusion was to become irresistible, for example, for the melancholy Walter Ralegh imprisoned in the Tower and it clearly underpins the dialectic of his cornucopian text The History of the World : 84 Appropriation in Antony and Cleopatra as there is a continuance of motion in natural liuing things, and as the sap and iuyce, wherein the life of Plants is preserued, doth euermore ascend and descend; so is it with the life of man, which is alwayes either increasing towards ripenesse and perfection, or declining and decreasing towards rottennesse and dissolution.

From a wider perspective, it becomes increasingly apparent from the study of early modern texts that the abiding cultural anxiety surrounding the mutable all too often became a dominant lens through which the age came to formulate ideas of cultural space per se. Victor G. Let Rome in Tiber melt, and the wide arch Of the ranged empire fall! Here is my space. Kingdoms are clay: our dungy earth alike Feeds beast as man; the nobleness of life Is to do thus. No wonder then that they were rounded upon at regular intervals by the city authorities with accusations of misrule, provocation and excess.

Inevitably they were held in doubtful esteem, all the more because so popular. In Antony and Cleopatra, the emphasis upon competition, creativity and process is made apparent at the outset. In the much-cited speech above, Antony determines to devalue the myths of belonging 86 Appropriation in Antony and Cleopatra centred upon imperial Rome in favour of a newly adopted and newly converted homeland established in the Nile kingdom.

Lever surmise that Shakespeare delayed the performance of the play until the reign of James I. Also numbered within the Sidney coterie, Fulke Greville was to burn his manuscript dealing with the same subject while Elizabeth was alive because many members in that creature by the opinion of those few eyes which saw it having some childish wantonness in them apt enough to be construed or strained to a personating of vices in the present governors Appropriation in Antony and Cleopatra 87 and government.

Indeed, the abiding wish of both Antony and Cleopatra to have an antagonistic political environment remapped is unsurprisingly decoded by their Roman spectators in terms of subversion, inconsistency and weakness. But it is one thing to mingle Contraries, another to enterchange them. And certaine it is, that Nothing destroieth Authority so much, as the unequall and untimely Enterchange of Power Pressed too farre, and Relaxed too much. It is my birthday. But since my lord Is Antony again, I will be Cleopatra.

Cleopatra Seleucus Caesar What have I kept back? Enough to purchase what you have made known. Nay, blush not, Cleopatra; I approve Your wisdom in the deed. Unsurprisingly, the shrill-tongued Fulvia and the scarce-bearded Caesar are derided by Cleopatra and exploited as symbols of uncreativity by a queen whose power is articulated through its protean qualities: If you find him sad, Say I am dancing: if in mirth, report That I am sudden sick.

Indeed, the volatile organization of cultural space emerges as a leitmotif in Antony and Cleopatra and serves ultimately to enrich audience understanding of human potential. But yet there is not any Thing amongst Civill Affaires, more subject to Errour, than the right valuation, and true Judgement, concerning the Power and Forces of an Estate. The Kingdome of Heaven is compared, not to any great Kernell or Nut, but to a Graine of Mustard-seed; which is one of the least Graines, but hath in it a Propertie and Spirit, hastily to get up and spread.

So are there States, great in Territorie, and yet not apt to Enlarge, or Command; And some, that have but a small Dimension of Stemme, and yet apt to be the Foundations of Great Monarchies. As soon becomes apparent, Enobarbus can only find solace in such unnuanced declarations because of his inadequate appreciation of the dramatic environment. The more finely textured mind of Antony acknowledges the cultural dilemmas compelled upon him by the morally and emotionally chequered world of the play.

Subsequently, Cleopatra also comes to understand how mutable the stage is upon which human experience is played out. For doing quhairof it is necessarie that all querrellis amongst thaim be reconcyled and alls straingeness between the nations quyte removed. Operations of cultural appropriation and silencing may of course be expressed at a territorial, imperializing level, but this text encourages us to adopt a whole range of lines of vision on the subject matter, directing attention to such fields of inquiry as those of time, myth, gender, language, history and so on.

However, rather than linking the foreignness of Egypt to its unpossessability, irrepressible Roman interest in this distant land appears to be preparatory to the violent expression of its imperial ambitions. More generally, the customary Roman mode of disdain when confronted with the inhabitual must be closely juxtaposed with its energetic commitment to empire-building: in this way, the affirmation of Egyptian cultural vacancy leads inevitably to the legitimation of its annexation.

The Egyptian proliferation of cultural space and meaning is recorded textually, for example, through linguistic comedy — most frequently, through the subversive pun. However, in Egypt even the expatriated Enobarbus finds the ability to quip with his general I. William Camden was far from unrepresentative for the period in his contention: This yoke of the Romanes although it were grievous, yet comfortable it proved and a saving health unto them: for that healthsome light of Iesus Christ shone withal upon the Britans. If, on the contrary, power is strong, this is because.

Language is demonstrated as being a creative resource which all the main political players deploy in order to re formulate speaking positions within this culture. However, equally notable are the ways in which the antagonist Caesar wishes to articulate his newly acquired authority through the written word: Go with me to my tent, where you shall see How hardly I was drawn into this war, How calm and gently I proceeded still In all my writings. Go with me, and see What I can show in this. In putting pen to paper, Caesar may be betraying not only his self-love but also the derivative nature of his political career whose narrative will, 94 Appropriation in Antony and Cleopatra he hopes, be inscribed within and cited from the existing corpus of heroic Roman lives.

In order to ensure this, he like his adoptive father Julius Caesar must become his own mythologizer. Like this murdered predecessor, he is endeavouring to mould the empire into an inherited dynastic space and, perhaps, to compensate for his future absence with textual plenitude. Certainly, at this late stage in the play the new emperor in his every word and deed wishes to seal the gaps of time, repair the ravages of human experience and establish a continuity of heroic rule with Julius Caesar.

In Hakluytus Posthumus, or Purchas His Pilgrimes , for example, Samuel Purchas was to stipulate: by writing Man seemes immortall, conferreth and consulteth with the Patriarks, Prophets, Apostles, Fathers, Philosophers, Historians, and learnes the wisdome of the Sages which have been in all times before him. The boy-emperor Appropriation in Antony and Cleopatra 95 wishes to triumph over time through the manipulation of the textual remains of the past, to re-create history and to delimit its meaning, but his endeavours to become legible, intelligible to the wider public, are in fact an exercise in political control.

Prove this a prosperous day, the three-nooked world Shall bear the olive freely. Nevertheless, the eastern emperor can never hope to destroy Rome as at least part-author of his meaning and, as a result, he repeatedly finds himself listening to the political achievements of other Romans. Thus, at the very outset, Antony is forced to witness his political displacement through language. The linguistic violence wrought upon Antony is intimately associated with the geographical violence at work in the empire as one cultural identity or space is reinvented in terms of another.

Indeed, it is through the public act of speech that he first articulates this will-topower, this will to redefine himself in terms other than those of imperial subjugation. Nonetheless, in reality, the competition between both realms is concentrated upon a strikingly similar absolute desire for heroic narrative. Cleopatra Hath nodded him to her. He hath given his empire Up to a whore. Of which colour, Cleopatra was obserued to be. And of that colour do those runnagates by deuices make themselues to be who goe vp and downe the world vnder the name of Egyptians; being in deed, but counterfaites, and the refuse, or rascalitie of many nations.

Like a right gypsy hath at fast and loose Beguiled me to the very heart of loss. The queen remains for her Appropriation in Antony and Cleopatra 99 audiences on and off stage an increasingly creative force in her challenges to Rome: she determines to interrogate Roman hegemonic discourses through her insistent determination to praise the dead. Such dangerous imaginative powers cannot be circumscribed or silenced in any conclusive fashion, as had already been demonstrated in the earlier play, Julius Caesar.

Caesar attempts to construct a grand imperial narrative, but his desire to limit its meaning is fraught with difficulties. Such meaning is no sooner inscribed in language than it is exceeded, overtaken by new narratives formulated by interpreting subjects across the empire — and those subjects are unreliable narrators of imperial ambitions. Dido and her Aeneas shall want troops, And all the haunt be ours. In addition, these operations can also have a disruptive effect on existing perceptions of chronology, interrogate the implications of political ambition and illustrate the cultural traumas produced when contradictory discourses regarding human need and desire are articulated by political elites.

Cleopatra is not only able to disrupt narratives of historical progress and male heroism so reassuring to Rome, but also to question and to reconfigure widely differing, but privileged fragments of the imperial Appropriation in Antony and Cleopatra past. Through a constant process of cultural rescripting, Cleopatra believes she can maintain, or at least preserve a measure of, her residual power and authority.

Broad-fronted Caesar, When thou wast here above the ground, I was A morsel for a monarch. At this critical moment in the tragic denouement, Cleopatra is much more representative of this dramatic world than she believes; she, like a host of others in the drama, mourns for a time when lack did not constitute subjectivity.

Antony himself, for example, prosecutes a series of condemnations against his queen by proclaiming her to be a negating, sterilizing, emasculating, indeed absence-provoking agent: Have I my pillow left unpressed in Rome, Forborne the getting of a lawful race, And by a gem of women, to be abused, By one that looks on feeders? This sword but shown to Caesar, with this tidings, Shall enter me with him. For this pains Caesar hath hanged him. Canidius and the rest That fell away have entertainment, but No honourable trust. I have done ill, Of which I do accuse myself so sorely That I will joy no more.

Indeed, in such plays as Coriolanus and Antony and Cleopatra the expanding city-state is given a multitude of differing identities which coexist and are played off against each other in complex Appropriation in Antony and Cleopatra ways. However, in Antony and Cleopatra dramatic emphasis returns repeatedly to the imperializing energies of Rome, the undoing of its political opposition and the erratic nature of agency at work in this environment.

As Enobarbus appreciates above, Caesar prepares a range of ritualistic humiliations for his enemies. The containment of her body indicates not only the ultimate violation of her political status, but the decay of her grotesque cultural identity in Roman eyes. The artful Roman leader wishes to celebrate the diminution of his new-found subject with the carnival violence of the cage and the circus.

Antony had earlier been at pains to stress that such edifices are deeply inscribed in Egyptian cultural life. However, the identification of the vox populi as a powerful yet volatile political force feeds the vigorous textual debate regarding the volatility of cultural organization in this dramatic world as a whole. The disaffected Antony can only lament the nature of our slippery people, Whose love is never linked to the deserver Till his deserts are past.

Acknowledging the direst fate for a governor, the wrathful Antony threatens his anarchic lover with the verbal violence of the plebeian world she despises: Let [Caesar] take thee, And hoist thee up to the shouting plebeians, Follow his chariot, like the greatest spot Of all thy sex. Antony can summon up such vehemence in his threats to his queen because it is painfully clear that he fears a similar fate: Appropriation in Antony and Cleopatra Eros, Wouldst thou be windowed in great Rome, and see Thy master thus with pleached arms, bending down His corrigible neck, his face subdued To penetrative shame, whilst the wheeled seat Of fortunate Caesar, drawn before him, branded His baseness that ensued?

Such populations are perceived as being profoundly aware of their own vulnerability. Moreover, given the cultural silencing of their voices, their possibilities of political activism appear to be limited to acts of violence. Sympathetic to such reasoning later in the seventeenth century, James Harrington would argue in his Commonwealth of Oceana : If we [English] have given over running up and down naked and with dappled hides, learned to write and read, to be instructed with good arts, for all these we are beholding to the Romans.

While he was yet in Rome, His power went out in such distractions as Beguiled all spies. Therefore we should deserue to be commanded and gnawen to the bare bone, for euer hereafter, as wel as in time past, that could looke to these matters no sooner. The cause of all, haue been but our blinde affections which peruert vs in true iudgement, the which now we must needes cut off. However, successful acts of territorial appropriation allow Rome to interpret cultural privilege according to its own value-systems: this is frequently translated in terms of the success of subject peoples to emulate Romanness.

Nonetheless, even for the Roman elite, the Nile kingdom emerges as a tempting vista of distant space. Antony Lepidus Antony Lepidus Antony [The crocodile] is shaped, sir, like itself, and it is as broad as it hath breadth. It is just so high as it is, and moves with it own organs. It lives by that which nourisheth it, and the elements once out of it, it transmigrates. What colour is it of? Of it own colour too. Appropriation in Antony and Cleopatra Enobarbus Maecenas Enobarbus Maecenas Ay, sir, we did sleep day out of countenance, and made the night light with drinking.

Eight wild boars roasted whole at a breakfast, and but twelve persons there. Is this true? This was but as a fly by an eagle: we had much more monstrous matter of feast, which worthily deserved noting. Accustomed to cultural marginalization by Roman colonial aspirations, Cleopatra decides to perform a little bit of alchemy herself and transmute alienation into emancipating difference. Whilst the preparations for this spectacle are under way, the queen offers the possibility that she Appropriation in Antony and Cleopatra may be a non-compliant captive.

However, if Cleopatra refuses to be signified, to specularize Roman glory, it is made abundantly clear to her that she will pay the price for it. However, as would-be pater patriae, Caesar is ruthlessly determined to discredit any rival claims to be the custodian of the political patrimony. Mary Hamer stresses that historically the remaining triumvir, Caesar, as he is called in the play, made his defeat of Cleopatra the symbolic basis of his own authority. He dated his rule from the day that Cleopatra died. The famous pax Augusta, the universal peace of Augustus, claimed that it was founded on the death and defeat of Cleopatra.

Thus some spend the daie till supper time, and then the night, as before. Other some spende the greatest parte of the daie, in sittyng at the doore, to shewe their braueries, to make knowne their beauties, to behold the passengers by, to viewe the coast, to see fashions, and to acquaynt themselues with the brauest fellowes: for if not for these causes, I see no other causes why they shoulde sit at their doores, from Morning till Noone as many doe from Noone to Night; thus vainly spending their golden dayes in filthie idlenesse and sin.

From this perspective, the only way in which it can gain meaning and status is through its introduction in the political exchanges engineered by Roman potentates: in short, it must be reduced to the same textual and political interest as Armenia, Parthia and Greece. If the invading forces of Caesar affirm their power in terms of the newly acquired property of Egypt, at the close of the play the dramatic emphasis nevertheless returns to the ways in which Rome is denied the fullest indulgence of triumphalism.

This chapter began with some propositions that ideas on space with regard to Antony and Cleopatra might be radically re-evaluated and diversified. Cleopatra See Caesar! O, behold How pomp is followed! Mine will now be yours, And should we shift estates, yours would be mine. Thus is man that great and true amphibium whose nature is disposed to live, not only like other creatures in divers elements, but in divided and distinguished worlds.

Ay, my lord. That which is now a horse, even with a thought The rack dislimns, and makes it indistinct As water is in water. It does, my lord. My good knave Eros, now thy captain is Even such a body. Here I am, Antony, Yet cannot hold this visible shape, my knave. The image of the hateful cuckoo, which usurps the space and status of others, constitutes but one facet of the all-consuming dramatic interest in diverse forms of dispossession for example, disempowerment, incarceration, bereavement, disinheritance, alienation which builds to a crescendo as the play unfolds.

This dynamic struggle forms a fundamental constituent for the shaping of meaning and identity in this dramatic world. This energetic vying for position leads, as the drama unfolds, to an extremely volatile production of diversified space. The human experience of place, particularly in postmodern times, is thus dialectical, and the social landscape is inscribed by social struggle. Withal, he kept Graphina from my bed? Recent scholarship has focused increasingly upon the rhetorical and largely formulaic nature of this debate conducted principally by male voices.

This dramatic mode overtly foregrounded intellectual and cultural debate, stressing the exploration of political doctrine and dissent. It was seen primarily as a reading experience which privileged discussion over dramatization, the word over the deed. Cary clearly exploits the dynamic, multivocal nature of dramatic discourse in order to probe in particular the irresolvable inconsistencies in cultural expectations of female experience. Rather than the more available early modern female discourses of moralizing prose, diaries, letters and conduct books, Cary selected in closet drama a discursive space whose conventions of political interrogation were established.

In whatever way this reference is deciphered, it clearly points to the cultural equation of transgression with the recording of the autonomous female voice. However, as soon becomes clear from a comparison between Cary and Josephus, the author of Mariam focuses much more prominently on Christian perspectives and the cultural experience and psychology of the female.

In opposition to those expectations, Cary refuses to define her heroine by a cultural space limited solely to the demands of male desire. She does not submit to a society which moulds the female subject into an erotic object for the male gaze, but neither does she compose a culturally untenable narrative of female autonomy. Women in Britain for most of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were not fully any of these things.

The heroine attempts during the course of the play to revise the cultural mapping of her body and mind with her voice. It is clear, nonetheless, that the Protestant Reformers focused widely upon analogies between the organization of the polity and that of the family and, to varying degrees, insisted upon the defining and delimiting of wifely duties in the same way that political theorists did upon the obligations of the subject in response to the sovereignty of the monarch.

Nevertheless, her recourse to self-expression in stage present is shown to magnify the confusion being experienced across this society in the absence of the patriarch Herod. The assumption of speaking positions by women in early modern writing is frequently associated with cultural disorder. Mariam acknowledges the criminalizing of her public voice and performs the first rite of dispossession on stage as she withdraws into the inferior cultural space conventionally attributed to the female: Mistaking is with us but too too common.

Now do I find, by self-experience taught, One object yields both grief and joy. Karen L. Unable to establish to her satisfaction the parameters of her emotional and political status, for much of the play Mariam is effectively shown to be paralysed by crises of conscience. Indeed, in the emblem book The Theater of Fine Devices , the reader is reminded that the ideal wife is fashioned in terms of both space and sound: She must not gad, but learne at home to shrowd; Her finger to her lip is vpward bent, To signifie she should not be too lowd.

Thus motherhood allowed the female to claim an acceptable, albeit confined, place in patriarchal history as a biological agent of transmission. In the case of the female characters, the stress falls upon the endeavours to secure a legitimate place in the cultural hierarchy. In order to probe the complexities of the female struggle against cultural dispossession, Cary strategically constructs a character not found in her source material, Graphina.

Her very name concentrates attention on the female relationship to the written word and, as an agent in this dramatic narrative, she constitutes a valuable referent of female submission. There is now increasing evidence that women participated more conspicuously in the legal and economic systems of exchange in early modern Britain than had hitherto been imagined. The ill-paid contribution of women to this proto-capitalist economy might take the form of agricultural labour or un skilled work in an urban context. In spite of analogous constraints amongst the urban bourgeoisie, wives, mothers and daughters could clearly not have divorced themselves from the commercial focus of the family.

However, amongst the nobility, the female appears to have been primarily recognized as an agent of dynastic interests, and it is in this social echelon that Cary locates her drama. Whether it be in the context of civic obedience or resistance, the potential of the female is never considered outside a male frame of reference.

The wrathful Constabarus, for example, exclaims to his adulterous wife: Are Hebrew women now transformed to men? Why do you not as well our battles fight, And wear our armour? The violence of male disorientation articulated here is in many ways but a shadow drawing of that in print during the Jacobean debate on appropriate female behaviour. The ranting Swetnam, for example, insisted in his pamphlet of that it is said that an old dog and a hungry flea bite sore, but in my mind a froward woman biteth more sorer.

And if thou go about to master a woman in hope to bring her to humility, there is no way to make her good with stripes except thou beat her to death. In the same way that Mariam inscribes herself through martyrdom into a historical continuum of female persecution, Salome is promoted irresistibly as a dramatic model of future female cultural commitment. Like the patriarchy which is trying to contain her, Mariam can attribute to herself no defining space of authority independent of those of royal mother, wife, daughter and, reluctantly, as an object of male desire.

The result is a fragmented dramatic locus characterized by racial, dynastic and gender divisions. This again demonstrates the fragility and the volatility of the cultural space which Herod seeks to dominate and to produce as a locus of cultural belonging. In direct comparison with Antony and Cleopatra, The Tragedie of Mariam often details this yearning for cultural belonging and legitimacy in terms of dynastic, geographical but also monumentalized space. In fact, the cultural reflex to image human experience in spatial, architectural terms is widely in evidence throughout the text.

The relation between political and domestic space has already been spelled out at the beginning of the play when the heroine regrets having betrayed her political and marital vows of allegiance. The cultural ideal of male comradeship was widely in evidence across Europe in writing and the visual arts of the early modern period.

If a man vrge me to tell wherefore I loved him, I feele it cannot be expressed, but by answering; Because it was he, because it was my selfe. As Constance Jordan points out, in his Generation of Animals Aristotle gave rise to a whole western tradition of male-authored writing focused on the implications of the physical weakness of the female compared to the male. Unwilling, like Plato, to differentiate between the discourses of gender and sex, Aristotle elaborated upon his analysis of imbalanced physical strength between the sexes by superimposing it on to a backdrop of cultural, political and moral frames of reference.

Christopher Marlowe (In Our Time)

These relations of superior to inferior became a paradigm for discussions in all fields of inquiry regarding the female. In contrast, the heroine, when denied political authority, dispossesses herself of erotic power: I know I could enchain him with a smile: And lead him captive with a gentle word, I scorn my look should ever man beguile, Or other speech than meaning to afford. Hitherto, Mariam believed that her chastity was to be enough to safeguard her life and to compensate for her lack of humility IV.

Now death will teach me: he can pale as well A cheek of roses as a cheek less bright. The play finds for its heroine a specified place in a modern world where language is transparent to subjectivity. The martyrdom of Mariam may lead to a dramatic tribute to female potential as the female body is absorbed into Christological symbolism, but it also effectively silences her voice. The liaison between female speech and cultural systems of meaning was readily established in early modern textual debates, especially where writers believed that control of the female depended on the fact that the female language should be transparent to subjectivity.

By the same token, the expression of sexuality itself is equated with the exercise of power and will, or aggression. Nevertheless, the concern with the cultural invalidation of the female speech act feeds a much more widespread consideration of the discrepancy between the power of the word and the deed in this dramatic world. This latter point made by Constabarus allows him provisionally to secure some moral high ground, which is never made available to women in a culture which values female silence. Salome, for example, discards any claim to moral status and restricts her cultural ambitions to the gratification of appetite: Why stand I now On honourable points?

This is as true of Herod as it is of his subjects. Most characters are found to implore in vain at some point in stage past or present. Why speaks thou not, fair creature? Here, paradoxically, the male licenses female speech, but only for a confirmation of assent. Apart from Graphina, all the other female characters in the play engage in more spectacular acts of cultural violence and, interestingly, these are principally channelled against each other.

The interpretation of race, for example, is found to be intimately involved with the claims of the patrician protagonists to political status. Indeed, Alexandra and her daughter Mariam construct their public identities forcefully by relying on arguments of racial hierarchy and political spaces of domination. In a culture where femininity is polarized as black or white, women are still unstable signifiers. She has come to symbolize the most important point of resistance to his regime of fear.

It becomes increasingly evident that the verbal violence of Doris, Herod and Alexandra towards Mariam anticipates the physical violence she is about to endure. A heavier tale did never pierce mine ear. She earns her place in the dramatic frame of history through the Christian symbolism of martyrdom, rather than through that of classical heroism.

Indeed, the reality of classical heroism Pompey, Caesar, Marc Antony and Augustus is never reproduced on stage. Constabarus and Silleus, for example, lack sufficient moral insight, tragic sensibility or textual importance to attain this stature. They are shown to have disrupted existing patriarchal power structures in order to satisfy personal ambitions of self-gratification, and Pheroras follows their lead.

Critically, Herod has become a source of unease and dissatisfaction. Barry Weller and Margaret W. St Jerome had previously likened disproportionate adoration of the wife by the husband to adultery; and male early modern writers were, in general, unwilling to challenge the gendered terms in which cultural perceptions of sovereignty were formulated. At the beginning of the early modern period, Juan Luis Vives, in his Instruction of a Christian Woman , affirmed: the woman is nat rekened the more worshipful amonge men that presumeth to have mastrye above her husbande: but the more folisshe and the more worthy to be mocked: yea and moreover than that cursed and unhappy: the whiche tourneth backewarde the lawes of nature, lyke as though a soldioure wolde rule his capitayne.

Nevertheless, this should not lead the reader to minimize the potential of his political regime. Everyone on stage is aware of his hold over life and death in Palestine. His repeated performances of threatened or realized violence are clearly an endeavour to reconstruct and maintain a particular sense of dominated political space in order to mask alternative representations of political rule. However, as Henri Lefebvre underlines, no attempts to claim and secure a dominant space meet with lasting success; and Herod is linked to the fragmentation of power structures through his failure to suppress his own appetites.

Like her brother, Salome does not hesitate to debase the currency of kinship, duty and allegiance: But he is dead: and though he were my brother, His death such store of cinders cannot cast My coals of love to quench. Thinks Salome, Silleus hath a tongue To censure her fair actions?

Nonetheless the play leads its reader to believe that Herod is no longer husband, ruler or vicious magistrate, but finally a weakened and lovesick mourner. Finally, it is clear that the reader increasingly becomes deprived of a conventionally soothing narrative of patriarchal restoration and closure in The Tragedie of Mariam. At the end of Act I, it reflects upon, Those minds that wholly dote upon delight, Except they only joy in inward good, Still hope at last to hop upon the right, And so from sand they leap in loathsome mud. Were Herod now perchance to live again, She would again as much be grieved at that.

Her wishes guide her to she knows not what. The ludic implications of the choric voice clearly remind us that To hear a tale with ears prejudicate, It spoils the judgment, and corrupts the sense. Our ears and hearts are apt to hold for good That we ourselves do most desire to be. After the bathetic representation of Herod hoping that the beheaded Mariam might be brought back to life V. None of her female characters are praiseworthy, and the entire sex is apostrophized bitterly in the farewell remarks of Constabarus.


We are left with the image of the silent, sacrificial daughter being hounded to her grave by the rowdy, dissatisfied mother, who is, in contrast, both speaking and surviving. What is the reader to think? This is not to suggest that Jonson inscribes his play formally within the conventions of utopian or, for that matter, dystopian writing. His weapons of satire, irony and farce are deployed carefully in order to impress upon his audiences the all-too-seductive powers of dystopian desires: Mosca And, gentle sir, When you do come to swim, in golden lard, Up to the arms, in honey, that your chin Is born up stiff, with fatness of the flood, Think on your vassal; but remember me.

It has, of course, preoccupied Jonson critics down the generations to establish the degree to which his wide-eyed audiences may look on with both disgust and desire at the capers being enacted just beyond the pale of their lives on the stage before them.

Using Shakespeare's Sotto Voce to Determine True Identity From Text

However, Robert O. This draws new clients, daily, to my house. Even the fantastical Sir Politic Would-Be is stimulated by the morally chequered environment of the city-republic in which he can note, and thus in some modest way contribute to, the sinister events of his everyday life: I will tell you, sir. The number of word groups largest appears on the x-axis, while the number of accumulated unique word types appear on the y-axis. We then visually compare the asymptotes of both playwrights using a different Word Accumulative Curve from the one mentioned in the previous paragraph.

In this one, each of the works of Shakespeare are ordered from the largest work size number of individual tokens to the smallest. Then the number of unique words in each work new types introduced is calculated. This data is then aggregated, and we have a data point for each file that introduces new unique words types. This process is applied to the works of Marlowe.

We plot both playwrights. The values of lexical richness change for different measures used because of text length, and it is necessary to correct for this Tweedie and Baayen, We do this with ratios Singhal et al. The data is clustered using three complementary techniques. The first attempts to separate the playwrights, the second separates known works from contested works—publications believed to be of different authorship — and, the third separate the three playwright's known works with the contested ones removed.

SPSS is used to conduct testing.

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  8. The Hierarchical Cluster Analysis technique uses Ward's Method with Squared Euclidean distance measurement, and nearest neighbor using both Squared Euclidean distance and Cosine options. The data is forced into three clusters for each playwright, Shakespeare, Marlowe, and Cary to observer where the chunks cluster. EFA aims to reduce the variables in the data into a smaller set of factors that explain the pattern of the relationships between the variables Burns and Burns, By setting the threshold to 0.

    Once this is achieved, we use the identified components, also known as factors, for each of the significant variables that make up the components factors to plot the 57 chunks and observe how the known and contested works visually cluster. We test the data initially by using the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin KMO to measure of sampling adequacy to ensure the value is greater than 0. We also ensure that Bartlett's Test of Sphericity has a significance value less than 0. We apply Kaiser's criterion rule by producing as scree plot which highlights all of the eigenvalues and suggests retaining only factors that are above the eigenvalue of 1.

    We remove the contested works from the data and categorize all of the individual known authors' chunks, numbering them 1—3 and train the model. Using the resultant coefficients from the three Canonical Discriminant Functions, we plot the functions and compare the clusters. Finally, we test the effectiveness of the algorithm. Rather than use k-fold cross-validation to test the accuracy of the model Rodriguez et al. We elect to use the partial approach because we are not concerned with data disclosure Drechsler et al. Five Shakespeare works are chosen at random and divided into 62 word chunks.

    Five partially synthetic samples are constructed using 12 randomly selected chunks. Using the LDA resultant coefficients from the previous test, these new 24,word synthetic works are overlayed against the uncontested works to see how close they cluster to Shakespeare, Marlowe, and Cary. Within this section, we discuss the correlation analysis results, the differences in the word accumulation curves, the hierarchical clustering, and PCA.

    We conclude with the stepwise LDA predictive model that is verified using a partial synthetic approach. The results were significant at the 0. In all cases, the relationship between Referential Activity Power and all other variables had an inverse relationship. Overall, the elements were independent of each other.

    Table 2. Pearson's correlation testing was conducted on the sensory adjectives that made up the Sensory element: Auditory, Gustatory, Haptic, Olfactory, and Visual. Gustatory, Olfactory, and Haptic had the same correlations and did not have a significant relationship to Auditory. Again, the elements were independent of each other. Pearson's correlation coefficient testing was used to determine the independence of the four linguistic variables known as particles that create the Referential Activity Power variables: Articles, Conjunctives, Prepositions, and Pronouns.

    The analysis showed that Prepositions are substantial as shown by its relationship with Articles In this case, it would seem overall that the elements were less independent of each other.

    There is a significant difference in the sample sizes of Shakespeare, Marlowe, and Cary. Therefore, as an alternate test for the Richness calculations, Word Accumulation Curves were plotted for Shakespeare's ,word, Marlowe's ,word, and Cary's 17, word corpus to examine if their use of vocabulary was similar. As can be seen lower panel Figure 1 Shakespeare's unique word list reached an asymptote at about the 50th largest word group, which is a total of 24, unique words. Marlowe's unique word list reached an asymptote at about the 21st largest word group, a total of 8, unique words, and Cary's unique word list reached an asymptote at about the 15th largest word group with a total of 2, unique words.

    When we compared the point where both word group curves asymptote, we could see Marlowe used about Cary used about However, there is a significant difference between the number of works each produced, and comparisons of the word accumulation plots tell a different story upper panel Figure 1. It highlighted that Marlowe and Shakespeare have similar word growth that might take into account the influence of vocabulary size. We cannot make a comparison with Cary with a single work.

    There is an age difference between Shakespeare and Marlowe which could account for these differences. People's vocabulary is known to peak late in adulthood before it declines currently peaking around 65 years. See Hartshorne and Germine, , but this could highlight that age differences contribute to and help differentiate people from their Richness scores. Figure 1. In the lower , the different number of words each playwright used is shown and is different, but in the upper , the similarities between Marlowe and Shakespeare's word usage is highlighted.

    In both cases, the chunks are well below a size that would approach the asymptote, and we deem that this phenomenon occurs outside of our enforced limit of a 30,word sample. To determine if there are differences in the writing styles of the three playwrights, the data was forced into three clusters using Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, using Ward's Method with Squared Euclidean distance measure, and nearest neighbor using both Squared Euclidean distance and Cosine measure.

    It was expected that by forcing three clusters, one for each playwright Shakespeare, Marlowe, and Cary , they would appear in separate clusters. However, the data variations in the contested and non-contested authored works were too distant in Euclidean space, and one of the clusters that formed had all three playwrights in them see Table S1 External Data. Another test would need to be performed on a smaller set of the data without the contested, non-authored works, therefore as an alternative, PCA was conducted.

    Iterative PCA was conducted to optimize the algorithm by the maximum variance explained by eigenvalues was conducted. Only one factor was extracted and accounted for All the remaining three factors accounted for PCA was extended, and the Referential Activity Power element was substituted with its four variables. Articles, Conjunctives, Prepositions, and Pronouns were tested to determine if the total variance would increase over the initial However, only one factor was extracted, and it accounted for All the remaining six factors accounted for Overall, the total variance explained by the single factor increased by 1.

    PCA was again extended, and the Sensory element was substituted with its five variables. Communalities varied from 0. By applying Kaiser's Rule and scree test, two factors were deemed important. Following rotation, factor one was loaded on five items that reflect four of the five sensory elements variables and RA Power accounted for Factor two is loaded on the Richness, personal pronouns, RA Power, and two of the Sensory adjectives Auditory and Visual and accounted for Overall, the total variance explained by the two factors was These results show an increase of 7.

    Unweighted least squares Factor Analysis results highlighted Pearson's r correlations and indicated the inverse nature of Referential Activity Power along with the isolated Auditory variable. The results of the Hierarchical Clustering and the PCA can be overlaid to reinforce the consistency of the results Figure 2 and show the separation of the contested works from the main body of works.

    This was identified through the two leading factors of the PCA grouped by the Hierarchical Clustering results blue ellipses. These methods are robust enough to correlate precisely. The cluster at the bottom contains most of the chunks for all three authors. The second largest cluster on the top left contains works of uncertain or mixed authorship, such as Shakespeare's The Passionate Pilgrim chunks , and 41 , and Marlowe's two-authored The Passionate Shepherd to his Love chunks The exception was Shakespeare's The Phoenix and the Turtle chunks While the differences in The Phoenix and the Turtle have been put down to Shakespeare's genius Bednarz, and there is still some uncertainty over authorship Richards, , it is an accepted Shakespearian work.

    The cluster on the top right showed one work each of Shakespeare and Marlowe's that are stylistically quite different from their other works. Venus and Adonis was suggested to be written during Shakespeare's hard times during the plague Stritmatter, , and it is said to lack a sense of form and seen as dull Putney, The results were reinforced by the personal pronoun analysis. When comparing Richness against Referential Activity Power, four very noticeable spikes occur chunks 24, , 41, and , and these were also the works that appear in the top left cluster.

    Two lesser spikes occurred in the top right cluster 8 and This relationship between Richness and Referential Activity Power is unusual and discussed further below. To further reinforce these consistent results, analysis of Richness against Sensory identified a large cluster of Shakespeare and Marlowe's works, but this time with a diffuse set of outliers. Most of these outliers were the same as those in the top clusters in Figure 2.

    Figure 2. Results of the two clusters from the Principal Component Analysis overlayed with the Hierarchical Cluster Analysis results and showing the three clusters that form to separate the known works of the three playwrights from the works that are of contested authorship or in the case of 8, 29, and 30 are stylistically different.

    To look at the data in more detail, the contested works were removed from the data, and stepwise LDA conducted. The results of LDA on the eleven elements showed that three variables contributed the most to the classification of the data: Auditory, Haptic, and Richness. The Canonical Discriminant Functions plot of each playwright also highlighted clear separation in their centroids.

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    Using this information, we reviewed the two sensory elements, Haptic against Auditory, and Richness against Auditory to discriminate the works of each playwright. Figure 3 shows the work chunks clustered against the Auditory and Haptic sensory elements. From the group centroids, there was a clear separation of the authors. Overall, Shakespeare's chunks had a style that was higher than Marlowe in the Haptic element 0. Figure 3. Results of the Linear Discriminant Analysis of the uncontested works of the playwrights showing the most significant element from each canonical function Auditory and Haptic Sensory elements.

    The mean of the works of each playwright is also shown. After constructing five partially synthetic Shakespeare works and overlaying them against the original data, they are closest to Shakespeare. To further test the effectiveness of the algorithm, five Shakespeare works were chosen at random chunks 6, 14, 19, 33, and 37 and divided into 62 chunks each of 2, words. Five synthetic samples were each constructed from 12 randomly selected chunks. These new 24,word synthetic works were overlayed against the uncontested works.

    As can be seen in the Haptic and Auditory plot Figure 3 , they visually aligned closer in style to Shakespeare, and their group centroid was closer in three-dimensional Euclidean space to Shakespeare than Marlowe a distance of As mentioned earlier, the relationship between Richness and Referential Activity Power is unusual. It is used to identify a person's level of depression by using Referential Activity words Bucci and Kabasakalian-McKay, We superimposed this against Richness R , a valuable stylistic contributor for authorship identification from Menhinick's Index used to measure species diversity Menhinick, This RA Power to Richness AtoR mapping Figure 4 inset highlighted several works with stylistic features likely written during difficult periods of the playwright's lives, perhaps brought about from the Bubonic Plague closing theaters, and against a backdrop of a poor economic environment and violent conditions in London during the late s.

    The two insets highlighted some Richness spikes upper diagram with low Referential Activity Power values chunks 8, 23, 24, 25, 41, 55, These higher Richness chunks were less concrete, more abstract and surreal, and they had less imagery and emotion across the sensory aspects, which highlighted a different style to the other works. Figure 4. The Venus and Adonis play 8 which seems to be stylistically different and has an unusual Richness to Referential Activity Power relationship see inset is divided into 2, word chunks as is the Merchant of Venice Of these, the only non-contested Shakespeare work, Venus and Adonis chunk 8 , was suggested to be written during Shakespeare's hard times during the plague Stritmatter, and be dull and lack a sense of form Putney, We would have expected a lower RA Power Bucci and Maskit, in a depressed state, which is what we observed in the centroid differences between the two works.

    We see Richness as a very strong separator. However, we would also have expected to see more lexical repetition through a lower Richness score Garrard et al. It is possible that the work was an early collaboration with another author, which was why it appeared near Marlowe's collaboration with George Chapman refer to top right cluster in Figure 2. It is also possible that the higher Richness was due to Shakespeare's large vocabulary.

    Using modern techniques on year old data has some limitations. After William the Conqueror invaded England, Anglo-Norman French became the administrative language of Kings and nobility in England for more than years. Shakespeare's Early Modern England emerged, borrowing over 10, Norman words, removing noun genders, simplifying adjective inflections, and The Great Vowel Shift commenced Mastin, , and pronunciation changed during to It marked the point at which language became more standardized and akin to today.

    To further put the results into perspective, Early Modern English began around the sixteenth century when vocabulary expanded at its greatest rate, and it is much closer to today's language than that of Old or Middle English Horobin, By this time pronouns, they, their, them had become firmly established in the standard language, such as most personal pronouns that have maintained number, case, and gender throughout the history of English. The word its only came into print in , and his was a neuter possessive where today we would use its Nevalainen, While we elected not to replace its with his words because while its does not appear in any copy of Shakespeare's works published during his lifetime, some instances do appear in his posthumous published plays.

    Replacing its with his would change the gender category of two poems, A Lover's Complaint personal pronouns score moved from 0. While A Lover's Complaint has been attributed to the poet John Davies of Hereford by Vickers , Wilson says that The Rape of Lucrece occupies an uncertain position in Shakespeare's canon, as an early, apprentice, experimental piece. Our analysis before using the word his instead of its suggests that outside of the higher gender score from personal pronoun use, The Rape of Lucrece is a Shakespeare written poem, while A Lover's Complaint was a contested work not written by Shakespeare.

    Distinct sets of indefinite and definite articles and demonstratives also existed by this time and support our algorithm's success to define the self from RA Power also, any many of the function words taken from the MRC Psycholinguistic database were used during this period. While the meaning of some words has changed over time, many of the sensory adjectives from the list were not identified, but there were enough early and simpler Early Modern English words identified to be of value.

    Language does change over time, as does the meaning of some words, but by applying our approach across all of the Elizabethan works only and not drawing on any modern English works, any bias is consistent and does not change the clustering results. Estimating Shakespeare' word use for authorship identification purposes might be effective see the Taylor poem in Thisted and Efron, It is known that Shakespeare had an active vocabulary of over 21, different words, and while today's educated person's vocabulary is less than half that, Shakespeare has been credited with introducing more than two thousand words into today's everyday use Bragg, Shakespeare's strength was his support from the King, to write and perform his plays in the emerging trade center, London for all to hear, the impact akin to today's newspapers and the internet.

    Brown and Gilman suggest that Shakespeare's dramatic text provide the best information on the colloquial speech of the period. He represented the conduct within court and society during a rich period of cultural reform and loaned from a library of lost voices Bristol, Shakespeare's works are overrepresented in the first edition of the Oxford English Dictionary, contributing almost 33, quotations Hoffmann, , and he would have leaned on existing words in use during this important period of language reform.

    Notwithstanding this, it was estimated that Shakespeare knew an additional 35, words he did not use Efron and Thisted, However, there was a significant difference between the number of works each produced and a comparison of word accumulation plots highlight they have similar word growth that might take into account the influence of vocabulary size varying with age differences Hartshorne and Germine, Regression Analysis showed similar Richness characteristics for Shakespeare and Marlowe, and results of two-sample T -Tests p -value 0.

    Therefore, we suggest Richness R is a valuable stylistic contributor for authorship identification. This was also highlighted in the results of the LDA. These results are also reflected in the sensory-based adjectives, and might be useful in determining changes in the cognitive states of people, and has the potential to identify characteristics of self within cyberspace for law enforcement purposes.

    It includes words that are strong in concreteness and imageability that reflect known psychological states in an individual's personality. The broader implications of this research may provide signaling of depressive episodes that could have major social implications, such as averting suicide.

    All authors analyzed the results and contributed equally to the writing of the paper. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. We thank D.

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