Nearly all aspiring diesel technicians receive training in this subject, which is one of seven areas of study recognized by NATEF in diesel technology. A Systems and Troubleshooting Approach.
Mobile Equipment Hydraulics A Systems And Troubleshooting Approach Modern Diesel Technology
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Common Problems with Traditional Hydraulic Systems
The Math. ANSI Symbols. Oils and Other Hydraulic Fluids. Piping, Tubing and Hoses. Couplers and Fittings. We will start with the prime mover. In mobile applications, the prime mover is typically a diesel engine due to its reliability and torque output. The best way to optimize efficiency of an internal combustion engine is to decouple it from the pump, and allow it to operate within its optimum efficiency, torque, and rpm range.
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This scenario lends itself to hybrid or zero emission all-electric architectures for vehicles. When the prime mover is an electric motor, there is a similar scenario regarding efficiency. According to the U.
Again, unfortunately most fluid power systems do not allow the motor to operate at that condition very often. Current methods to size an electric motor for fluid power systems is all about compromise. They are sized to handle worst case load situations but in reality, it will be operating throughout its percentage of full load range. One way to increase efficiency of the motor losses is to operate in a power-on-demand configuration.
The motor would only be supplying the speed and torque required by the work being done. While synchronous induction motors are by far the most widely used motor type in the world, they do not lend themselves to operating in a power-on-demand function. This is due to needing a minimum speed to attain a magnetizing current and thereby be able to produce torque.
If you must operate at lower speeds, an induction motor will not suffice. This creates a cost prohibitive barrier for most applications. There are ways to drive down the cost of motor controllers that will be discussed in a future article. Following the prime mover down the chain is the hydraulic pump.
Usually, they see a duty cycle that fluctuates from zero work being done to moderate or higher levels of work. This means that the pump is only producing flow or pressure when work is being done and only the flow and pressure that is required at that instantaneous point in time.
This is similar to decoupling the engine as described above and can remove all non-optimum duty cycle losses. Next in the chain are the control valves. These take the form of directional control valves, pressure control valves, flow control valves, etc. Specifically, it states that an increase in speed of a fluid results in a decrease in pressure pressure drop. This pressure drop is a decrease in the potential energy of the fluid and results in heat being generated, i.
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In almost all hydraulic valves, we must create an increase in velocity in order to control the direction, flow, or pressure, thus the energy losses in these components are inevitable. In a future article, we will discuss a simple way of dealing with the energy losses in valves, by simply removing them from the system! Figure 2 — Energy Chain in Hydraulic System. Problem 2 — Complexity Over the years, fluid power systems have consistently become more and more complex. With the explosion of integrated electronic valves, sensors, and controllers in the last decade or two, the complexity of a system has been compounded.
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A hydraulic system is very dynamic by nature, and when one component has a problem, it typically can cause a chain reaction of effects throughout the system. This creates problems not only for troubleshooting we discuss that below but also tuning, sensor feedback filtering, maintenance, and cost among other things.
A good example of this problem is when a pump load sense orifice is constricted by a partial blockage. This partial blockage can present itself as various symptoms throughout the system depending on the dynamic load or flow rate being called for.
Normally this is compensated for within the system design, but when an unforeseen obstruction or blockage occurs especially one that is transient in nature the dynamic system effects can be troublesome. Figure 3 — Typical Hydraulic System Schematic.
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Problem 3 — Difficult to Troubleshoot Troubleshooting….. Every expert or technician has an opinion on how best to go about troubleshooting a given system. The main problem with troubleshooting is every hydraulic system is different: different pumps, different valves, different controls, different pressures, different duty cycles, different flow rates, different..